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Physical Science Notes 416-436
Definitions
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Periodic Table of the Elements: Properties of Elements
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Dont understand what your teachers talking about? These definitions might help

Word

Formula or Symbol

Definition

Acid

 

Hydrogen bonded to a Non-metal

Alkali Metals

 

First group on the periodic table, 1valence electron in its outermost energy level,  highly reactive elements

Alkaline Earth Metals

 

Second group on the periodic table, 2 valence electron in its outermost energy level

Aluminum

Al

13th element on the Periodic Table, 3 valence electrons, used for aluminum foil, metal

Argon

Ar

18th element on the Periodic Table, 8 valance electron, un-reactive, non-metal

Atom

 

Only one type of element

Base

 

Metal bonded to an OH group

Beryllium

Be

4th element on the Periodic Table, 2 valence electrons, used in gears and cogs, metal

Boron

B

5th element on the Periodic Table, 3 valence electrons, essential mineral for plants, metalloid

Calcium

Ca

20th element on the Periodic Table, 2 valance electron, essential for bones and teeth, metal

Carbon

C

6th element on the Periodic Table, 4 valance electron, humans/animals/plants are all carbon based organisms

Cathode Ray Tube

CRT

J.J. Thomson: used for discovering the electron, used for TVs, computer screens etc

Characteristic Property

 

A property that belongs to one given substance

e.g.: CO2 turns lime water cloudy

Chemical property

 

Describes how a substance interacts with another element

e.g.: Baking Soda reacts with vinegar to make CO2

Chlorine

Cl

17th element on the Periodic Table, 7 valence electrons, chlorine gas(bomb) or pool cleaner, non-metal

Compound

cpd

Two or more different elements chemically bonded together

Continuous

 

Aristotle: You can cut something down forever

Covalent Compound

 

Non-Metal bonded to a Non-Metal

Discontinuous

 

Democritus: You cannot continue splitting something forever, your going to be left with an atom, cant cut

Electron

e-

Subatomic particle that travels in energy levels around the nucleus of an atom, discovered by J.J. Thomson

Element

elmt

Only one type of atom e.g.: H, Mg, Si, Ca

Energy Level

 

Levels that carry electrons around the nucleus   

Fire triangle

 

3 parts: Fuel, heat source, oxygen

Fluorine

F

9th element on the Periodic Table, 7 valence electrons, strengthening teeth and bones. It is added to drinking water in some areas and to toothpaste, non-metal

Gas (state)

(g)

No controllable cluster of atoms

Group

Gr.

Determines the number of valence electrons, location of elements on the Periodic table, They are the columns

Halogens

 

Reactive non-metals in the 7th group on the Periodic Table, they have 7 valence electrons

Helium

He

2nd element on the Periodic Table, 2 valence electrons, inert (does not react), used for filling balloons, non-metal

Hydrogen

H

1st element on the Periodic Table, 1 valence electron, highly explosive gas, non-metal

Ionic Compound

 

Metal bonded to a Non-Metal

Liquid (state)

(l)

A loose cluster of atoms

Lithium

Li

3rd element on the Periodic Table, 1 valence electron, Lithium carbonate therapy treatment for manic depression, metal

Magnesium

Mg

12th element on the Periodic Table, 2 valance electrons, does not react, essential element for all living things, metal

Magnetism

 

Attraction or repelling of different poles, 2 different poles: north and south

Metal

 

Located on the left of the periodic table, lustrous, ductile, malleable, high melting point, conduct electricity + heat

Metalloid

 

Located on the stairs of the Periodic Table, there properties can be of metals and/or non-metals

Mole

Mol

6.02 x 10 is Avogadros number

Molecule

 

A group or cluster of atoms

Neon

Ne

10th element on the periodic table, 8 valence electrons, un-reactive, used in lights

Neutralization

 

When an acid and a base combine they cancel each other out to create Salt and water A + B = S + Water

Neutron

n

Subatomic particle held in the nucleus of an atom, discovered by Niels Bohr

Nitrogen

N

7th element on the Periodic Table, 5 valence electrons, 78% of our atmosphere, non-metal

Noble/Inert Gasses

 

Un-reactive gasses in the last group on the Periodic Table, they have 8 valence electrons

Non

characteristic Property

 

A property that belongs more than one substance

e.g.: 5 fingers

Non-metal

 

Located on the right of the Periodic Table, dull, friable, poor conductors of heat and electricity

Oxygen

O

8th element on the Periodic Table, 6 valence electrons, we breath it in to supply our body, non-metal

Period

Per.

Determines the number of energy levels, location of elements on the Periodic table, They are the rows

Periodic Table of the Elements

PTE

Organized table containing all of the elements in order of their increasing Atomic number

pH

 

Is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration

Phosphorus

P

15th element on the Periodic Table, 5 valence electrons, essential to all forms of life since it is part of DNA, non-metal

Physical Property

 

2 Types: Qualitative= use of senses i.e.: odour, texture

Quantitative= measurements i.e.: density, melting point (mp), boiling point (bp), solubility

Potassium

K

19th element on the Periodic Table, 1 valence electron, use in fertilisers, essential to all living things, metal

Proton

p+

Positively charged sub-atomic particle concentrated in the nucleus of an atom, determined by the Atomic Number

Salt

 

Metal bonded to a Non-metal

Silicon

Si

14th element on the Periodic Table, 4 valence electrons, may be important to human life, metalloid

Sodium

Na

11th element on the Periodic Table, 1 valence electron, regulation of water content in tissue and blood, metal

Sodium Chloride (table salt)

NaCl

Compound of Sodium and Chlorine in a 1:1 ratio to create table salt. Conducts electricity when dissolved in water

Solid (state)

(s)

A tight cluster of atoms

Sulfur

S

 

16th element on the Periodic Table, 6 valence electrons, awful smell, given off in volcanic eruptions, non-metal

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