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Physical Science Notes 416-436
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Chemical and Physical Changes and properties
Periodic Table of the Elements: Properties of Elements
Atomic Theories and discoveries
Bohr Model
The Naming of Binary Compounds
Octet Rule/Elemental Happiness
Balancing Chemical Equations
pH Math
Acid Rain
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A very pHun part of chemistry

pH scale


What is the pH scale:


The pH scale tells you if something is a Acid, Neutral (Salt) or a Base by using a colour/ number scale.


Understanding pH


To understand pH you need to know about ions.


*ions are charged atoms.


There are 2 types of ions:


1)      + ions = CATIONS

2)    --  ions = ANIONS


A bit about cations:


-         + --> go towards the cathode (negatively charged)

-         Cathode = Negative electrode (CRT, see Atomic Theories page)


A bit about anions:


-         go towards the anode (positively charged)

-         Anode = Positive electrode (CRT, see Atomic Theories page)


How metals are affected:


Metals = lose e- ---> + ions


            Groups 1A = 1 valence electron ---> lose 1 electron ---> +1

            Gr. 2A = 2 val e- ---> lose 2 e- ---> +2

            Gr. 3A = 3 val e- ---> lose 3 e- ---> +3



How nonmetals are affected:


Nonmetals = gain e- ---> - ions


            Gr. 5A = 5 val e- ---> gain 3 e- ---> -3

            Gr. 6A = 6 val e- ---> gain 2 e- ---> -2

            Gr. 7A = 7 val e- ---> gain 1 e- ---> -1



HOH   ---> H+   +   OH-

                 (+cat)    (-anion)




A (acids) ---> form H+ ions in water


B (bases) ---> form OH- ions in water


S (salts) ---> form +ve metal ions

                        -ve nonmetal ions




An electrolyte is a chemical  wich conducts electricity in water because it produces ions in water

The types of chemicals that do that are: ABS (Acides, Bases,Salts)




What do antacids do


An antacid neutralizes an acid.


How do you neutralize an acid


There are two ways to neutralize an acid:           1) Use a base (metal OH)

                                                                        2) Use a carbonate (H CO3)


1) Base:

            Mg(OH)2 ---> Milk of magnesia

            (m-OH)                 (m.o.m)


e.g.: HCl + Mg(OH)2 ---> MgCl + H2O

      (Acid) + (Base)    ---> (Salt) + (Water)


2) Carbonate:

            CaCO3   or   NaHCO3

Other examples of carbonates: 







-Tums for your tummy = CaCO3


            2 HCl + CaCO3 ---> CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O

            (Acid) + (Carb.) --->(CO2)+(Salt)+(Water)


Any Acid + Carbonate = CO2(g) + Salt + Water

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